People have lengthy been fascinated by pine bushes and their roles within the pure world round us. They’re mysterious, lovely and historical bushes that may stay for tons of and in some circumstances hundreds of years.
There are roughly 125 completely different pine species which have been recognized as a number of the world’s most enduring bushes and organisms.
Actually, some bushes of the Bristlecone Pine species (Pinus longaeva) have been carbon dated to round 5,000 years previous. (1)
Whereas the human genome has over three billion base pairs, the loblolly pine species has been proven to have 22 billion base pairs, greater than seven occasions the quantity of genetic materials in us people. . (2)
Historical past of Pine Needle Advantages and Compounds
Native people have lengthy used pine needles and numerous compounds from sure pines for no less than tons of of years. (3) Consuming sure pine needles impacts the immune, respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological techniques of us people.
Curiously, it was the bark and needles of pine bushes that the Iroquois gave to the critically in poor health crew of Jacques Cartier in 1536 that helped present the vitamin C the crew wanted on the time to deal with his scurvy. (4)
Extra not too long ago, pine needles and pine needle tea have acquired monumental consideration from scientists, medical doctors, and folks working within the fields of well being and wellness, because of the many various compounds discovered naturally in some species. (5)
Pine needles, particularly these from japanese white pines (Pinus strobus), are recognized to offer many various compounds and vitamins, together with antioxidants, vitamin C, important oils, amino acids, and flavonoids. .
Some of the fascinating compounds that scientists have begun to re-discuss in 2021 is of course occurring shikimic acid present in sure pine species like Japanese White Pines.
Pine needles and shikimic acid
Some is likely to be conversant in the time period shikimic acid because of the truth that it’s the essential constituent of the antiviral drug Oseltamivir, additionally recognized commercially as Tamiflu. (6) Whereas pine needles shouldn’t be confused with Tamiflu, shikimic acid as a pure compound is thought to induce a number of completely different physiological results within the physique.
Shikimic acid can be recognized in biology because the Shikimate pathway and was first found by Dutch chemist Johan Fredrik Eykman in 1885.
The Shikimate pathway is essential for all times and is a seven-step pathway utilized by micro organism, fungi, archaea, algae, some protozoa, and vegetation for the biosynthesis of nutritional vitamins, folates, and the fragrant amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. (7)
These amino acids assist produce neurotransmitters and compounds like serotonin, melatonin, epinephrine, dopamine, CoQ10, and thyroid hormone, particularly with the assistance of helpful intestine micro organism.
Shikimic acid has been proven to help wholesome platelet perform and help wholesome cardiovascular perform in people. (8)
It has additionally been proven to assist help bowel and digestive system perform, in addition to the myelin sheath. (9) The myelin sheath is the fatty substance that surrounds neurons and acts as an insulator for the entire electrical communication that takes place between these neurons.
Shikimic acid can be recognized for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti inflammatory properties, amongst different vital properties. (ten)
Shikimic acid, pesticides and digestive functioning
As detailed earlier, shikimic acid is the tip results of the seven-step metabolic course of generally known as the shikimate pathway. This pathway is thought to be negatively impacted by completely different pesticides, together with the well-known glyphosate.
Glyphosate is among the most generally used pesticides on the earth and quite a few research and lawsuits have detailed its controversial use lately, with the World Well being Group classifying it as a possible Class 2A human carcinogen. (11)
The pesticide creates a number of completely different dangerous and noticeable results, akin to inhibition of essential cytochrome p450 enzymes in addition to suppression of p53 gene perform. This specific gene is loosely recognized by scientists because the guardian of the genome. (12)
On the subject of the shikimate pathway, glyphosate targets this seven-step course of by inhibiting a key enzyme generally known as EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase). When EPSPS is inhibited, the development of amino acids wanted for protein manufacturing is blocked and the plant dies.
Though we people don’t instantly include the shikimate pathway, it’s recognized how and why glyphosate nonetheless impacts us.
In 2021, the first-ever bioinformatics methodology was used to evaluate the potential sensitivity of organisms to glyphosate primarily based on the kind of EPSPS enzyme.
The brand new methodology they used additionally made it attainable to categorise the sequences of roughly 90% of eukaryotes and greater than 80% of prokaryotes.
Scientists weren’t stunned to search out that an astonishing 54% of species within the core human intestine microbiome are delicate to glyphosate, and it was additionally said that this was a conservative determine introduced. (13)
Provided that glyphosate harms a lot of the helpful micro organism within the intestine, it is no shock that well being points like most cancers, melancholy, weight problems, diabetes and digestive problems have elevated over time. years alongside the widespread use of glyphosate. (14)
Pine needles and pesticide-free agriculture
Shikimic acid and the shikimic acid pathway are vital due to their necessity in creating an immense quantity of life on this planet and the way they have an effect on the human microbiome and general well being.
Using artificial pesticides has had a big impact on us people in some ways, in addition to on pollinators like bees and butterflies.
Our meals, water, lawns and meadows have additionally been affected by glyphosate and elevating consciousness of the issues with artificial pesticides is step one in serving to to cut back their use on this planet.
Selecting meals which can be organically grown or sustainably harvested from the wild, when attainable, is one approach to cut back consumption of pesticide-sprayed artificial meals and assist help a wholesome microbiome.
One other approach to help microbiome, intestine, immune and respiratory functioning is by consuming pine needles and the lively constituents discovered there.
The centuries-old use by Indigenous peoples of white pine needles and pine needles of assorted different species has not too long ago been introduced again into the limelight because of the health-promoting compounds these needles naturally include, in addition to their relevance to international well being, agriculture, and meals.
- https://www.nps.gov/grba/be taught/historyculture/the-prometheus-story.htm
- https://www.webmd.com/weight loss plan/what-to-know-pine-needle-tea